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Program on Corporations, Law & Democracy
REAL Democracy History Calendar – sign up!
Move To Amend Campaign:
We are pleased to announce the creation of a new resource: the REAL Democracy History Calendar.
You are invited to sign up to this new free weekly email resource – to be sent out beginning January 1, 2016. To sign up, click here.
Corporate entities and individuals of extreme wealth have to a major extent captured our government and economic institutions. Basic political, economic and human rights are in decline. The result is a lack of real democracy — defined as the ability of those who are affected by decisions having an authentic voice in the shaping of those decisions.
However, people have always strived for basic rights, resisted oppression, created alternative structures, and sought to control the power and influence of corporate entities and extreme wealth in society through education, advocacy and social movement organizing.
To sign up, click here.
The REAL Democracy History Calendar will provide 1-2 listings per day sent by email every Monday morning of activities, events, quotes from prominent individuals and/or other occurrences (both past and recent) on the themes of democracy, human rights, corporate power and rule, and wealth in society (especially in elections).
The Calendar is a joint production of the Program on Corporations, Law & Democracy (POCLAD) and Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee (AFSC). Much of its base comes from our research and writings on these themes over the last two decades.
Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire — and to illuminate the reality that creating real democracy will not happen by changing any one politician, passing/repealing any one law or regulation, or reversing any single Supreme Court decision. It requires, rather, changing our political, economic and social culture - one byproduct of which will be to democratize our legal structures through genuinely inclusive, multi-issue, nonviolent social movements.
To sign up, click here.
Below are a listing of postings over the next several weeks – to provide a flavor of the Calendar’s contents that would be sent by email each week beginning January 1.
If you feel this would be valuable information to you, please sign up here. And please spread the word to others!
Thank you for your consideration.
REAL Democracy History Calendar
1799 – Death of George Washington, first President of the United States of America – need for coercive power
“We probably had too good an opinion of human nature in forming our confederation. Experience has taught us that men will not adopt and carry into execution measures the best calculated for their own good, without the intervention of a coercive power,” said George. According to historian Charles Beard in “An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States,” Washington was probably the richest man in the colonies at the time of the Revolution.
1896 – Covington & L. Turnpike Road Co. v. Sandford (164 U.S. 578) Supreme Court decision – corporations are persons
The Court declared, “it is now settled that corporations are persons, within the meaning of the constitutional provisions forbidding the deprivation of property without due process of law, as well as a denial of the equal protection of the laws.”
1791 – Ratification of the Bill of Rights
The first 10 Amendments to the Constitution were adopted to protect We the People from excesses of government and to affirm certain inalienable rights of human beings. At the time, however, We the People were only white males who owned property and were over 21 years old. Each state decided how much property must be owned to qualify to vote or run for office
1986 – Justice William Brennan delivered opinion of Supreme Court in Federal Election Committee v. Massachusetts Citizens for Life, Inc. (479 U.S. 238) – spending by corporations in elections may make them formidable power
“Direct corporate spending on political activity raised the prospect that resources amassed in the economic marketplace may be used to provide an unfair advantage in the political marketplace…The resources in the treasury of a business corporation…are not an indication of popular support for the corporation's political ideas. The availability of these resources may make a corporation a formidable political presence, even though the power of the corporation may be no reflection of the power of its ideas."
1773 – Colonists stage Boston Tea Party to protest British Tea Act
Parliament passed the Tea Act, which provided the East India Trading Company complete access to the colonies and exempted it from paying taxes to the colonies – increasing the profits to company stockholders, which included Parliament members and the King. This undercut colonial tea merchants who were required to pay taxes on tea.
Boston Tea Party participants saw themselves as anti-corporate protestors. Their call for “no taxation without representation” was not one against paying taxes, but rather an insistence that every entity – including the East India Company – should pay their fair share and that no entity should be taxed without governmental representation.
1964 – Death of Alexander Meiklejohn, Philosopher and Educator – on 1st Amendment and freedom threatened by dominant business enterprises
The 1st Amendment "does not intend to guarantee men freedom to say what some private interest pays them to say for its own advantage. It intends only to make men free to say what, as citizens, they think.”
“[I]nsofar as a society is dominated by the attitudes of competitive business enterprise, freedom in its proper American meaning cannot be known, and hence, cannot be taught. That is the basic reason why the schools and colleges, which are, presumably, commissioned to study and promote the ways of freedom are so weak, so confused, so ineffectual.”
1882 – Death of Henry James, Sr. – on democracy
"Democracy is not so much a new form of political life as a dissolution and disorganization of the old forms. It is simply a resolution of government into the hands of the people…”
2009 – Publication this month of article, “People as Property: Criminalizing Color, Dissent and Impoverishment through the Prison-Industrial Complex” by Karen Coulter, principal of the Program on Corporations, Law & Democracy (POCLAD)
“Slavery and involuntary servitude were supposedly abolished by the 13th amendment to the Constitution. However, the amendment reads that slavery and involuntary servitude shall no longer exist in the U.S. ‘except as punishment for crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted’…Then there are the investors in the prison industry: American Express Corporation invested millions in private prison construction in Oklahoma; General Electric Corporation financed prison construction in Tennessee; Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch, Smith Barney, and other Wall Street investment firms made big profits by underwriting prison construction with the sale of tax-exempt bonds, a 2.3 billion dollar industry as of 1997. Some of the largest Wall Street investment corporations started buying bonds and securities from private prison corporations in the '90's and reselling them for profit to individual investors, mutual funds and others, literally speculating in the growth of locking up more and more people. The rise of the prison industrial complex can be accurately seen as part of a profound transformation restructuring U.S. economic development and its forms of social control. Philip Wood identifies corporate colonization of decision-making structures as a key element of the changes in U.S. public policy supporting the expansion and privatization of the prison industry.” http://www.poclad.org/BWA/2009/BWA_2009_DEC.html
REAL Democracy History Calendar
1885 – Corporate lawyers claim railroad corporation’s 14th Amendment rights violated
In San Mateo v. Southern Pacific R. Co., 13 F. 722 (C.C.D. Cal. 1882), corporate lawyers attacked a provision of the California Constitution that assessed higher property taxes against railroad corporations than against non-corporate properties. The attorneys charged that the state violated the railroad’s “rights” under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The parties settled the case before the Supreme Court announced a decision; however, the argument would be used one year later in what would become the very first time corporations were granted 14th Amendment “rights” by the Supreme Court in Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Company, 118 US 394.
1970 – Birth of Senator Ted Cruz (R., Texas) – politicians are open to the highest bidder
“Lobbyists and career politicians today make up what I call the Washington Cartel. … [They] on a daily basis are conspiring against the American people. … [C]areer politicians’ ears and wallets are open to the highest bidder.”
1913 – Congress passes Federal Reserve Act – Creating Federal Reserve System
The Act created a largely corporate controlled national banking and currency system, passed in the House by 298-60 and in the Senate by 43-25 and signed by President Wilson on this day. It was a major coup for banking corporations through the establishment of a private central bank authorized to "monetize" government debt (i.e. to print their own money and exchange it for government securities or I.O.U.'s). The central banking system was composed of 12 regional private/corporate banks owned by participating commercial banks. All national banks were required to join the system. Banking corporations now controlled the issuance and distribution of our national currency. By controlling our national money faucet, they could create inflation and deflation. This corporate monopolization of our currency allowed for public regulation, but not control. It was now banking corporations, not the U.S. government, that controlled the national currency. Congress handed its Constitutional power under Article 1, Section 8 to create our money over to private banking corporations. It’s the ultimate form of “privatization” – more accurately “corporatization” – of what was meant to be, and should be a public function or service.
1962 – Birth of David Cobb, national Outreach Director for Move to Amend and principal of the Program on Corporations, Law & Democracy (POCLAD)
Cobb debated James Bopp in September, 2014 at Indiana University in Bloomington, IN on “Citizens Divided: Corporate Money, Speech, and Politics.” Bopp is General Counsel for the James Madison Center for Free Speech and was lead attorney for Citizens United, the group that argued their corporate 1st Amendment “speech rights were violated when prevented to air a political program just prior to the election.”
The “debate” turned out to be one-sided – with Cobb presenting a much stronger case for why corporations should not be granted “personhood” rights and money should not be granting “free speech” rights than Bopp arguing the reverse.
Watch the debate at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ijSsZdCatTM
2015 – Christmas – Jesus attacks “money changers”
Celebrated birth of Jesus Christ in Christian calendar.
In his only public act of violence, Jesus drove the “money changers” with a whip of chords out of the sacred Temple in Jerusalem, which he called “my Father’s house.”
Modern-day money changers are banking corporations – the most economically and politically dominant of all corporations. They have captured our most sacred democratic “house” – our government. They, too, along with all other corporations, need to be driven out of our government.
2015 – Boxing Day - corporate personhood, money equals free speech and U.S. Constitution “boxes” activists into small spaces of what is doable
“Boxing Day” is an annual holiday celebrated in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth nations. Traditionally, it was when servants or employees would receive gifts from their bosses or employers in “Christmas boxes.”
Many Supreme Court decisions anointing corporations as legal “persons” and money as “free speech,” as well as many limitations of the U.S. Constitution (i.e. no direct election of President, no national initiative provision, no definition of economic rights, among many others) have been anything but gifts to individuals striving for real democracy. They have, rather, “boxed” activists into ever-smaller spaces concerning what laws and regulations can be passed. Unable to limit the amount of money in elections from individuals and corporate entities and incapable of preventing corporations from asserting Bill of Rights protections, the super wealthy and corporate entities have captured greater portions of public policies and public spaces and, in turn, shrinking these public arenas for the vast majority of citizens.
For background on limitations of and possibilities for a more democratic Constitution, see http://poclad.org/BWA/2007/BWA_2007_DEC.html and http://poclad.org/BWA/2007/BWA_2007_MAR.html#3
1907 – Death of John Chandler Bancroft Davis – unilateral action yielded first Supreme Court corporate “personhood” decision
Davis played a historical role in the corporate personhood debate. As the court reporter in Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad (118 U.S. 394, 1886), his responsibility was to prepare ‘a summary-of-the-case commentary.’ He wrote in the headnote to the decision that Chief Justice Morrison Waite began his oral argument of the court’s opinion by stating, ‘The court does not wish to hear argument on the question whether the provision in the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which forbids a State to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws, applies to these corporations. We are all of the opinion that it does.”
Davis’ published reports and notes from 1885-1886 contained his views on the Santa Clara case: ‘The defendant Corporations are persons within the intent of the clause in section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which forbids a State to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”
Thom Hartman and other journalists and authors charged Davis with a conflict of interest as previous President of the Newburgh and New York Railway in his role in the Supreme Court ruling. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bancroft_Davis
REAL Democracy History Calendar
1856 – Birth of Woodrow Wilson, 28th President of the United States of America – on the need for corporations and government to work together
“Since trade ignores national boundaries and the manufacturer insists on having the world as a market, the flag of his nation must follow him, and the doors of the nations which are closed against him must be battered down. Concessions obtained by financiers must be safeguarded by ministers of state, even if the sovereignty of unwilling nations be outraged in the process.“ http://www.washingtonsblog.com/2014/09/usa-sponsored-terrorism-mid-east-since-least-1948.html
1947 – Birth of Spencer Bachus, former Republican Chair of the US House Financial Services Committee – regulators serve banks
"In Washington, the view is that the banks are to be regulated and my view is that Washington and the regulators are there to serve the banks."
2014 – Big money breaks out: Top 100 donors give almost as much as 4.75 million small donors combined
“The 100 biggest campaign donors gave $323 million in 2014 — almost as much as the $356 million given by the estimated 4.75 million people who gave $200 or less,” a POLITICO analysis of campaign finance filings found.
‘When 100 big donors give as much almost 5 million small donors, with whom do we expect candidates to spend their time, and whose interests do we think they will represent?’ McKinnen asked. ‘That’s not democracy. That’s oligarchy.’”
Read more: http://www.politico.com/story/2014/12/top-political-donors-113833#ixzz3ta7ebjxE
2011 – Pittsburgh City Council passes resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood
The resolution also called for returning elections to the American people.
1945 – Birth of Harvey Wasserman – exposes fraudulent electronic voting machines
Wasserman is an anti-nuclear and safe energy activist, journalist and senior editor of the Columbus Free Press. He has co-authored numerous articles with Bob Fitrakis on election fraud of elections since 2000, with special emphasis on the 2000 and 2004 election results in Ohio.
Wasserman and Fritakis have recently written.
“The way our electoral process now stands, electronic voting machines guarantee a Republican victory in 2016…
“Source codes remain "proprietary," so the public has no control over the private machines on which our allegedly democratic elections are conducted. There is no usable paper trail, transparency or accountability.
“We are concerned that all voters get fair access to the polls, and all votes are fairly counted, no matter who the candidate. We have no doubt the Democratic Party would be just as willing to flip elections from Republicans as vice versa, and that both have, can and will do the same to the Green Party and other challengers.
“So we support universal hand-counted paper ballots, automatic universal voter registration, a four-day national holiday for voting, major restrictions on campaign spending and a wide range of additional reforms meant to guarantee some kind of democracy in the United States.”
Featured Poclad Article
His Name was Richard Grossman
by Mary Zepernick
My co-host Betty Burkes on our radio call-in show told me she had met an interesting man at a party and would like to invite him to be a guest. He lived near the Provincetown studio at the eastern end of Cape Cod, and his name was Richard Grossman.
Intrigued by his on air claim that the accumulated legal power of the modern business corporation allowed it to virtually govern, I took to stopping by his house on show evenings to chew on ideas. I even had the temerity to argue with him, which Richard relished.
Richard brought varied experience to his eventual Partnership with Ward Morehouse. As a community organizer he founded Environmentalists for Full Employment, worked at the Highlander Research & Education Center in Tennessee, and served as Executive Director of Greenpeace USA.
Richard and Frank T. Adams published Taking Care of Business: Citizenship and the Charter of Incorporation in 1993. In it, they stated:
Corporations cause harm every day. Why do their harms go unchecked? How can they dictate what we produce, how we work, what we eat, drink and breathe? How did a self-governing people let this come to pass?
Corporations were not supposed to reign in the United States. When we look at the history of our states, we learn that citizens intentionally defined corporations through charters -- the certificates of incorporation.
In exchange for the charter a corporation was obligated to obey all laws, to serve the common good and to cause no harm. Early state legislators wrote charter laws and actual charters to limit corporate authority, and to ensure that when a corporation caused harm, they could revoke its charter. During the late 19th century, corporations subverted state governments, taking our power to put charters of incorporation to the uses originally intended.
"Corporations may have taken our political power but they have not taken our Constitutional sovereignty. Citizens are guaranteed sovereign authority over government officeholders. Every state still has legal authority to grant and to revoke corporate charters. Corporations, large or small, still must obey all laws, serve the common good, and cause no harm. To exercise our sovereign authority over corporations, we must take back our political authority over our state governments."
Richard was a prolific and colorful letter writer. In a tome to Jerome Groopman of Harvard Medical School, he explained that he had heard him interviewed on the radio, "and how refreshing it was indeed to hear a physician talk with passion against the “corporatization” — the literal factoryization—of disease care and health care.
“But it’s only logical, no? The rest of our society transformed into assembly lines—of work, of art, of the mind and of the soul. Listening to you, I thought of Martin Niemöller, the German Protestant pastor who told how he sat by when the Nazis came for people by category... But the corporate assembly lines came for the workers, and the doctors were silent...
“They came for the educators, and then the legislators, and the judges, and the mayors—and the doctors could not be heard. The corporate assembly lines came for the free press, they came for our elections . . . Now, they’re coming for our genes, for food, for the basic biological building blocks of life . . . and where are the doctors? It’s all been of a piece. The corporate assembly lines have come for and gone away with our Constitution, our liberty, our Declaration of Independence. So who should we be surprised that now they’ve come for you? Why should anyone care?
“But the fact is, plenty of people care … all the people across generations and vocations who have been resisting the corporate assembly-lining of life and death and work and thought and of the natural world.
“So it’s not too late for you, for your colleagues, for your students, for your patients, for your spleens and livers. It’s not too late to sew the histories together, to make solidarity connections…
“To speak out. To resist. To join with others. To design new designs... The few are coming for the many. As in Nazi Germany, they target people category by category—in the process making each category of people a little less human. They are coming with the protection of the law—of the police, of our learned judges—with the assistance of our own government.
It’s a pisser, Jerry, isn’t it?”
Richard Grossman had a keen sense of humor, sometimes acerbic but not unkind. As his views on corporations and democracy evolved, he saw the need to develop them further with others. He gathered some like-minded acquaintances, and we met in two adjacent houses on Cape Cod.
His soft hearted side was revealed when my cat became ill. Richard insisted on accompanying me to the vet: “No one should go to the doctor alone!”
Richard and his longtime friend and colleague Ward Morehouse formed a powerful duo, bringing their respective ideas, personalities and colleagues together to create POCLAD - The Program on corporations, Law & Democracy. My enduring memory of Ward is meeting him at the airport with his ever-bulging briefcase en route to a retreat at the Occidental Arts & Ecology Center, where much of POCLAD's work was forged.
Richard was born in Brooklyn on August 10, 1943; graduated from Columbia in 1965; and was married to Mary MacArthur for 43 years, with one daughter, Alyssa, and a grandson. Richard Grossman died - too soon - of cancer at 68.
Ward and Richard would have appreciated the late humorist Molly Ivins' description of POCLAD as Poorly Clad!
In the 2003 article published this month by Kimberly French, “How Corporate Personhood Threatens Democracy,” we read the following:
“In 1995 [Ward] Morehouse and Richard Grossman cofounded a think tank called the Program on Corporations, Law, and Democracy (POCLAD), a project of CIPA. They invited a dozen fellow activists to join them. Their primary tool has been weekend retreats they call “rethinks,” short for Rethinking Corporations, Rethinking Democracy. The workshops bring together twenty to twenty-five activists who live near each other or work on similar issues. Over the past decade, POCLAD has conducted several hundred of the retreats all over the country and is now training others to lead them.
“Morehouse and Grossman never set out to become experts on corporate history and law. But they have concluded that, to effect any lasting change, that is where activists must focus their energy. Morehouse calls movements that simply ask corporations to behave better, such as socially responsible investing, social auditing, business ethics, or wise use, accommodations to corporate power. ‘It's not . . . 'good corporate citizenship' that sovereign people must seek. Those phrases are contradictions in terms and diversions from the public's central task to become unified enough to exert citizen authority over the creation, structure, and functioning of all business enterprises,’ Morehouse and Grossman write in the POCLAD anthology, Defying Corporations, Defining Democracy.”
Remembering Ward Morehouse
By Jim Price
June 30, 2016 marks the fourth anniversary of Ward Morehouse’s death. Anniversaries like this one are especially poignant for those of us who were Ward’s friends and colleagues at the Program on Corporations, Law, and Democracy (POCLAD). From the mid-90s until his death in 2012, we had the unique opportunity to spend weekends with him at our semi-annual retreats. We were also able to share special experiences with Ward ranging from “Rethinking the Corporation, Rethinking Democracy” workshops around the country to significant world events including the “Battle in Seattle” anti-globalization protest at the World Trade Organization’s 1999 Ministerial Conference.
Ward was a wise, grandfatherly advisor, and mentor to our POCLAD circle. Using a measured speaking style, he contributed meaningful insights to any discussion in which he was a participant. He brought a unique perspective from his times challenging the international encroachment of corporate power.
Ward was a lifelong, multi-talented, and highly committed human rights activist. He has been variously described as a pro-democracy visionary, a publisher, an international educator, a citizen tribunal judge, a Unitarian Universalist lay leader, a student of alternative economics, an anti-war activist, a housebuilder and retrofitter, and a lover of his family and his dogs. As he applied his multi-faceted talents, Ward was unceasingly passionate about confronting world-wide corporate malfeasance and brave in the tactics he used. When he deemed it necessary, those tactics included applying non-violent civil disobedience and serving as a judge at citizen tribunals prosecuting both human and non-human corporate criminals.
One of Ward’s gifts was his ability to create and effectively use not-for-profit organizations to educate people in the U.S. and abroad about how wealthy individuals have used the corporate form to create a worldwide political and economic oligarchy and what can be done to dismantle it. Whatever the challenge, Ward founded an organization to multiply the impact of his vision.
In 1976, Ward became President of the Council on International and Public Affairs (CIPA) a not-for-profit human rights organization that he had co-founded in 1954. While working at CIPA in 1985, he learned of a giant Union Carbide chemical spill that had occurred at Bhopal, India in the early hours of December 2, 1984. It was estimated that over 15,000 people were killed and an additional one-half million were injured in that disaster. It proved to be a life changing event for Ward. In response, he created another organization, the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal (ICJB), and focused its resources on helping the victims and holding Union Carbide accountable. Ward’s persistence in confronting Union Carbide brought him recognition as an international human rights activist. When Dow Chemical purchased Union Carbide and refused to clean up the chemicals polluting Bhopal’s environment, Ward realized that the fundamental challenge facing humans experiencing corporate malfeasance is to shift the paradigm from confronting corporate crimes one corporation at a time to working systemically to change the relationship between natural persons and corporations in order to enable humans to establish governance over them.
TOES (The Other Economic Summit) North America was another organization that Ward helped establish in 1988 and served as its first Chair. TOES included groups of sustainable economists, local economic justice activists, and others organized to counter the annual G7 economic summits. Along with other sustainable economists, including British economist E.F. Schumacher, he also formed the Intermediate Technology Development Group focused on designing and applying small-scale, localized approaches to building and infrastructure construction.
In 1994, Ward co-founded POCLAD with Richard Grossman. It remains to this day the foremost example of his work to create an organization to spread the impact of his (and their) pro-democracy vision. Ward joined with Richard and his fellow POCLADistas (the term he affectionately used to refer to his POCLAD colleagues) to conduct numerous “Rethinking the Corporation, Rethinking Democracy” workshops throughout the U.S. The concept of confronting corporate “personhood” was discussed and refined through democratic conversations at those “Rethinks.”
Ward said that he established the Apex Press in 1990 as a vehicle to publish books, “to build democracy with equality – without which there could be no democracy.” Over the years, the Apex Press became a valuable instrument through which the POCLAD principals have been able to publish numerous publications on corporate personhood and democracy.
Another institution through which Ward shared his vision for a truly democratic society was the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA). As a third generation Unitarian Universalist (UU), Ward lived his UU principles to touch the lives of millions of people. His paternal grandfather had been a UU minister as is one of his sons. He was a long time member of the Unitarian Universalists for a Just Economic Community (UUJEC), the economic justice advocacy arm of the UUA. Tom Stites, Ward’s friend and former editor of the UU World Magazine, describes Ward as, “a gentle man of steel – patient yet relentless. He was modest yet certain about what justice means – and fearless in its pursuit.” In 2003, Ward joined with Stites in writing a special May/June issue of the UU World devoted to explaining how corporations having constitutional “rights” overwhelms democracy. The articles in that issue, including an excellent article about Ward by Kimberly French, constituted the strongest expressions opposing “corporate personhood” to appear within a publication of the UUA. Ten years later, on June 23, 2013, the UUA General Assembly passed an Action of Immediate Witness endorsing the Move to Amend proposed We the People 28th Amendment, asserting that corporations should not be considered to have the constitutional rights of natural persons and that money should not be viewed as a constitutionally protected form of free speech. Since then, over fifty Unitarian Universalist entities have endorsed the proposed Amendment. This is but one example of how Ward articulated his vision to educate and move a significant institution to take a pro-democracy stance recognizing that humans should define and limit any privileges granted to corporations.
Ward also influenced the National Lawyers Guild. Within it, he organized the Committee on Corporations, the Constitution, and Human Rights to challenge corporate constitutional rights. For several years this committee helped educate lawyers and the general public about the dangers of corporations possessing such rights.
Much has been written about Ward Morehouse’s outstanding accomplishments. We in the POCLAD collective were also privileged to experience Ward’s humanity and his sense of humor. He was a genuinely humble person. Richard Grossman once said that, “Ward is the most unpretentious person I know. He either keeps his ego in check, or he doesn’t have one. He’s not out for power or glory. He truly cares about people, and that is his greatest strength.”
We POCLADistas relished our times spent with Ward whether engaged in a conversation with him in his truck loaded with construction tools and materials on the way to a retreat or sharing a humorous moment with him on a conference call. Two such calls come to mind. On one occasion, in the midst of a call, Ward began calling loudly, “Down, Buster, down boy! Down big boy!” One of his large dogs had been playfully jumping up at him a little too aggressively for Ward’s comfort. To our collective delight, he then laughingly explained what was happening. On another occasion, in the midst of a call, we all heard the sound of what appeared to be a collision. In the midst of the call, it seemed that Ward had had a minor traffic accident about which he informed us without leaving the call. When discussing such events Ward would be the first to laugh at such situations. That was the nature of his humility, sense of humor, and self-assurance. Ward also had an unselfish streak a mile wide. He would go many miles out of his way to meet a fellow POCLADista at an airport and transport that person to and from an event or retreat.
Ward would often come to our POCLAD retreats wearing a flannel shirt (usually red and black with the shirt pocket filled with notes and pins), khaki pants, and partially tied work boots. If our meeting location required that we meet in our stocking feet, his socks would invariably have one or more holes in them. He would have a duffel bag with him that contained numerous publications and papers requiring much more work than he could possibly accomplish during our time together. Such was the nature of this veteran multi-tasker. He was a busy man. If he was not building a cabin in Maine with his sons or retrofitting houses, he was headed to India to a conference or a legal hearing. I am confident that I speak for my POCLAD sisters and brothers when I say that Ward Morehouse was one of the kindest, smartest, and most farsighted people we have known. Ward truly lived every moment of his life for justice. His was certainly a life well lived. We continue to miss having Ward’s presence with us.
Make a donation to POCLAD. Funds are needed for speaking, conferences, research, and minimal organizational maintenance. Contribute online at http://poclad.org/donate.html or by sending it to POCLAD, P.O. Box 246, S. Yarmouth MA 02664. For a tax deduction, send your check of $50 or more -- earmarked for "POCLAD"-- to the Jane Addams Peace Association, 777 United Nations Plaza, 6th Floor, New York City, NY, 10017. Thank you!